A. FRAMEWORK OF KTSP
Curriculum is a set of planning and managing objectives, material, resources and method used to in the teaching learning process to reach certain educational objectives. The development of curriculum especially English curriculum in Indonesia can be mapped in 5 periods; (1) The 1975 curriculum,; the 1986 curriculum; the 1994 curriculum; the 2004 curriculum and the 2006 curriculum known as KTSP, or Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. The KTSP is developed from the 2004 curriculum which based on the text based communicative approach and literacy approach. In other words the KTSP is based on the both approaches.
The KTSP is School Based Curriculum, it is arranged by school to let the educational program suitable for the students’ needs and potencies of the region where the school is in. Consequently, KTSP varies one to another but the government has given government educational goal and standardizes the content and the competence of graduate through PP. No. 19, 2005 concerns on National Standard of Education (SNP) at May 16, 2005.
Standard of content which is needed in PP No. 19 2005 has attached in PERMENDIKNAS, No. 22, 2006. It states that English is given as local content (mulok) in elementary school for two hours in a week. In SMP and SMA is 4 hours except in language program is 5 hours per week. According to PERMENDIKNAS No. 23, 2006, the standard graduate of English competence is communicative competence in the form of spoken and written for achieving literacy level for senior high school.
To reach the educational goal as in the PP. No. 19 2005, the school must have a set of planning and managing the objectives through written documents. The written documents relates to the PP. No. 19 2005 are syllabus, RPP, standard of competence , basic standard, material, learning activities, learning indicators, assessment, time allocation and resources . The syllabus is developed by a teacher or group teacher supervised by department of education based on standard of content, standard competence of graduate and guiding of arrangement of school-based curriculum (Appendix of PERMEN No. 41, 2007).
B. THE CAHARACTERISTIC OF KTSP
1. emphasizing the attainment of the students’ competence individually and classically;
2. orienting toward learning outcomes, and diversity;
3. using genre approaches in the learning process and greatly is influenced with Systematic Functional Grammar of Halliday (1987).
4. accepting any other educative learning sources besides teachers;
5. emphasizing its evaluation on the learning process and outcomes in acquiring or attaining a certain competence.
C. THE PROBLEMS IN IMPLEMENTING KTSP
KTSP is an ideal curriculum based on its characteristic but it is hard to imply.
- Emphasizing the attainment of the students’ competence individually and classically;
The KTSP need students’ competence individually, but how can the competence reach if in the class has 40 students? A teacher just effort as he can, if the average of students gets a good point he thinks he has done well. The teacher refers to manipulate his data on students’ competence.
- Orienting toward learning outcomes, and diversity;
How to control learning outcomes if the teacher and the decision makers manipulates the learning outcomes to be considered that he has done well as decision makers think.
- Using genre approaches in the learning process and greatly is influenced with Systematic Functional Grammar of Halliday (1987). Genre based curriculum forced students to exposure their English analytically. The teacher and the students have not been ready to expose their English as genre based curriculum demanded. Indonesia doesn’t provide adequate exposure to English for the majority of the learners. This perhaps used to be a universal constraint among other countries where English is used as a foreign language. People did not have ready access to read and listen to English materials. Besides, at the immediate level, there are no urgent real needs for the majority of Indonesians – as well as no adequate resources – to develop communicative competence in English.
- Accepting any other educative learning sources besides teachers;
Most of school has problems on learning media resources. It related to the limited budget Teachers’ habitual and their previous experiences influence the way of their teaching. Some research found that the English teachers are not active users of English. The limited budget also led to the lack of educational resources. Only exceptional schools have language laboratories, adequate libraries or self-access learning centers. Most schools don’t even provide a tape recorder and cassette tape to let students listen to model input.
5. Emphasizing its evaluation on the learning process and outcomes in acquiring or attaining a certain competence.
The 2006 syllabus is not followed by the changing of approaching used by the teacher in classroom. Teachers tend to teach more grammar and structure separately and explicitly out of their communicative competence. Teachers’ habitual and their previous experiences influence the way of their teaching. Some research found that the English teachers are not active users of English. Some teachers teach the material following the English handbook given by publisher. He rare see and look up the objective and indicators of the material in the syllabus.
D. THE RECOMMENDATION
1. The school should use SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threat) analyses to make a decision before adopting the most appropriate curriculum.
2. The curriculum should meet student’s need, so the school must have the data what students expect in the class.
3. Each school should decide to set advanced competencies in their English curriculum, the very first step to take is to improve the quality of their English teachers themselves
4. It’s time that the scholarship and fellowship be directed also to secondary school teachers rather than to university teachers only.
5. The teacher certification program required in the Bill of Teachers and Lecturers (UU Guru dan Dosen) should be given to the valid and qualified institution to carry out the certification.