AUTHOR: DR. ACHMAD JAENURI
Resumed by ANDI MAHMUDIN
To fulfill Philosophy of Muhammadiyah Assignment
LECTURE: DR. ABDUL MU’TI M.Ed.
This book analyzes on the Indonesian Muslims overview on their religion. The writer scanned the Muslims thought who have definitely differed from the common. The Indonesian Muslim Culture refers to reserve all social habits, even though there do not literate on the Islamic law. Some of them concerned in, not only on this case but also in any reasons. They, whether individually or a group, are effort to teach and preach what the Islamic law is according to Al Quran and Al Hadist. One of the organizations in which has taught according to those Al Quran and Al Hadist and has many contributes on the social and education for Indonesian’ Muslim is Muhammadiyah.
The Ideas in Islamic Reform
- Social and Culture of Indonesian Muslim
KH. Achmad Dahlan lived among common Muslims practiced their Islam based on their cultural background. Hinduism and Buddha came to Indonesia a hundred years before Islam, it means that the people cultural mind-set were in Hinduism and Buddha. They referred to reserve their offspring habits, or they tolerate to practice Islam in their way or culture. It is way in their Islamic daily practice still giving a tribute to their offspring every Friday or doing ceremony to memorize the dead in certain day 3rd , 7th, “mendak” 2 months and “nyatus “ for 3 months. He saw some Muslim practice their sholat didn’t face to Baitullah in Mecca but just to the west in which differ some points to Mecca. KH. Achmad Dahlan wants to see the Indonesian muslim practice their religion as Al Quran and Hadist depicted, but he could not change this condition by himself, he need people who have same idea to change. He need an organization or an institution in which contains the Muslim has same idea as him.
- Inspired by world Muslim movement
KH Achmad Dahlan got much information since he went to Mecca to do fifth Islamic principal, Hajj. He had much discussion with the people who concerned on the religion problems in all muslim countries. Each muslim countries has reformers who have similar idea, thus has same problem as Achmad Dahlan. Most of the reformers , not only all over the world but in Indonesia also, convey their contributions through organization or movement. E.g. Shaykh Ahmad Al Surkati in 1920 roled in Al Irsyad (Indonesia), Ibnu Hambal (164 – 241 /780 – 855) and its follower Ibnu Taymiah (661 – 726 / 1263 – 1328) in Wahabi movement (Mecca), Sah Waliullah (114-1176/1703-1792) India followed by Sayyid Akhmad Khan 1817 -18980 leaded Aligarh Movement. Those reformers had similar idea on reform and purify islam from cultural society, government, other religion practices and all aspect beyond Islam. And, It inspired KH Akhmad Dahlan to build Muhammadiyah.
- Dutch colonialism
Other reasons, KH Akhmad Dahlan found Muhammadiyah is because of the Indonesian situation where Indonesia was under Dutch colonialism. All the Indonesians were eager to free from this circumstance. The Indonesian always fought and struggled to get their independence, in any ways. Some of those contacted in war like Imam Bonjol, and Pangeran Diponegoro. Meanwhile, Ki Hajar Dewantara, KH. Hasyim Asy’ari and KH Akhmad Dahlan were the ones whom gave their idea and hearts for Indonesian and their religion through organization. There are many reason why KH Akhmad Dahlan enforced his struggles through Muhammadiyah movement
- It would be more effective to achieve a goal in a group than individual to enforce the Dutch giving an independence for Indonesia.
- It is harmless for the Muslim if they stayed beside the Dutch to get Indonesian independence.
Through ethic politic released by the Dutch it was a chance for Muhammadiyah to improve its activities in enlarging the efforts. It was not only on the Theological terms but in sociological term and welfare included. Muhammadiyah reform his organization through establish the social like PKU and Muhammadiyah gives a chance to the Muhammadiyah women to take a chance in Aisyiah a part of Muhammadiyah movement.
- Christian Missionary
KH Achmad Dachlan concerned the Christian mission on the people who have had religion, especially Islam. The missionaries asked the poor Muslims for coming to their religion with noodles and breads. Muhammadiyah expects to reduce the missions in two ways:
- Muhammadiyah blocked the spreading of missionaries through sending the Muhammadiyah preachers to rural area to improve the beliefs of the muslims
- Muhammadiyah efforts to improve the welfare of the muslim through PKU and education in order to they cannot go to be poor but to be rich and educated Muslims
- Basic Muhammadiyah overview on the religion
Muhammadiyah takes Islam as the basic Ideology of the movement with some reason:
- Reform agent (Islah )
Muhammadiyah as religion movement does not hope to fall in creating a new religion sect in Islam but it just tries to apply all according to Alqur ‘an and Al Hadist, although Muhammadiyah often gives new interpretation on the Islamic rules and laws. Muhammadiyah lets the members and participants to apply Islam as prophet said in Al Hadist and depicted in Al Qur’an. In some facts, they should interpret in logical way. This is the reason why Muhammadiyah known as reformation movement.
- World Overview
Most Muslims view their religion is only doing the 5 principals, witnesses (syahadat), daily prayer (shalat), fasting in ramadhan(puasa), religious tax (zakat), and hajj. They avoid saying or doing economic, social and politics according to Islam. As Snouck Horgronje said Let religious ceremony held by Kiayi or preachers and let me do the others. It means that the Kiayi have responsibilities just on the religious ceremony but the Dutch colonial arranged and take the economy and social of the Muslim.
Muhammadiyah concerns on the muslims who just discussed about halal and haram about something but never think how to improve the muslim welfare. Muhammadiyah argues that there has equal position in Islam between 5 principals (Rukun Iman ) and World (Urusan Dunia). As a responsible in the case, Muhammadiyah found PKU (people education and wlfare) beside build Majlis Tarjih.
Islamic doctrine interpretation in social reform
Based on above, Muhammadiyah placed Rukun Iman and Urusan Dunia in same position, the organization held PKU. It means Muhammadiyah has had responsibility on the Muslim’s welfare since the Dutch colonialism. Muhammadiyah and Sarikat (1912) Islam had against the colonial policies on tax of landform and harvesting. Muhammadiyah assumed that the complaint was not only for the Dutch but it was also for the Muslims themselves to joint against the Dutch policy. Muhammadiyah issued to the Muslims through education. If the Muslim had knowledge and skill, they would be wealthier. If they had been educated they would have confident and brave to be against the Dutch.