FINAL SEMESTER ASSIGNMENT
UHAMKA POST GRADUATE PROGRAM
|PROGRAM STUDY||ENGLISH EDUCATION MAGISTER PROGRAM|
|SUBJECT||CURRICULUM AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT|
|LECTURE||HARTOYO, MA, Ph.D|
|DATE||15TH JANUARY 2011|
The Department of English Language Education
Graduate School of the University of Muhammadiyah
Prof. DR. HAMKA (UHAMKA) Jakarta
- School-Based Curriculum (KTSP)
According to Ronald C. Doll, in his book, Curriculum Improvement: Decision Making and Process, (Doll, (1996 p15) in Agus Dharma, PhD ” Indonesia Basic Education Curriculum Current Content And Reform “ a paper, 2008). goes further, stating that:
The curriculum of a school is the formal and informal content and process by which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills, and alter attitudes, appreciations, and values under the auspices of that school.
Extremely, there are two ways in developing a curriculum, at one extreme is center-based or top down curriculum development in which the curriculum is determined by the centre, and there is little autonomy for schools. At the other extreme is the bottom-up or school-based curriculum, developed entirely by individual schools. (http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:7KcAZbNv4iAJ:www.puskur….)
School-Based Curriculum (KTSP) is bottom up curriculum. It has been released supported by the spirit of decentralization, as showed by act of local autonomy No. 22, 1999 revised by Act of local Autonomy No.32, 2004 and hand in hand with Act No. 20, 2003. Formerly, it states that yg dimaksud dg ‘satuan pendidikan’ adalah lembaga penyedia layanan pendidikan atau sekolah. It has been seen in the 2006 curriculum (KTSP) launched by government. In this curriculum, government shares his educational responsibility to the local government and the schools. The government has made guidance in applying the School-Based Curriculum. It explains in some standards a school should rely on. There are eight standards according to Governmental Regulation (PP) No. 19, 2005 concerning National Standard of Education (SNP) at May 16, 2005 has been described in 8 Educational standards; (1)standar isi, (2)standar proses, (3)standar kompetensi lulusan, (4)standar pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan, (5)standar sarana dan prasarana, (6)standar pengelolaan, (7)standar pembiayaan, dan (8)standar penilaian pendidikan.
THE CHARACTERISTIC OF KTSP
- Emphasizing the attainment of the students’ competence individually and classically;
- Orienting toward learning outcomes, and diversity;
- Using genre approaches in the learning process and greatly is influenced with Systematic Functional Grammar of Halliday (1987).
- Accepting any other educative learning sources besides teachers;
- Emphasizing its evaluation on the learning process and outcomes in acquiring or attaining a certain competence.
- The implementation
Before 2006, education in Indonesia was determined by the National Education Ministry. Now local school communities, of course in accordance with the national standard and guidelines and under the supervision of the local government, are responsible for designing the curriculum for their own schools. Thus schools are given the freedom to develop and implement a curriculum that is relevant to the needs of their specific pupils or students. The general model of this school-level curriculum, which was being developed, was quite similar to the one that was being implemented before 2006. This means that most schools develop their own curriculum by referring to national standards.
Even though government has given the guidance to apply the KTSP most schools still have any difficulties:
THE PROBLEMS IN IMPLEMENTING KTSP
KTSP is an ideal curriculum based on its characteristic but it is hard to imply.
Emphasizing the attainment of the students’ competence individually and classically;
The KTSP need students’ competence individually, but how can the competence reach if in the class has 40 students? A teacher just effort as he can, if the average of students gets a good point he thinks he has done well. The teacher refers to manipulate his data on students’ competence.
Orienting toward learning outcomes, and diversity;
How to control learning outcomes if the teacher and the decision makers manipulate the learning outcomes to be considered that he has done well as decision makers think.
Using genre approaches in the learning process and greatly is influenced with Systematic Functional Grammar of Halliday (1987). Genre based curriculum forced students to exposure their English analytically. The teacher and the students have not been ready to expose their English as genre based curriculum demanded. Indonesia doesn’t provide adequate exposure to English for the majority of the learners. This perhaps used to be a universal constraint among other countries where English is used as a foreign language. People did not have ready access to read and listen to English materials. Besides, at the immediate level, there are no urgent real needs for the majority of Indonesians – as well as no adequate resources – to develop communicative competence in English.
Accepting any other educative learning sources besides teachers;
Most of school has problems on learning media resources. It related to the limited budget Teachers’ habitual and their previous experiences influence the way of their teaching. Some research found that the English teachers are not active users of English. The limited budget also led to the lack of educational resources. Only exceptional schools have language laboratories, adequate libraries or self-access learning centers. Most schools don’t even provide a tape recorder and cassette tape to let students listen to model input.
The 2006 syllabus is not followed by the changing of approaching used by the teacher in classroom. Teachers tend to teach more grammar and structure separately and explicitly out of their communicative competence. Teachers’ habitual and their previous experiences influence the way of their teaching. Some research found that the English teachers are not active users of English. Some teachers teach the material following the English handbook given by publisher. He rare see and look up the objective and indicators of the material in the syllabus.
Basically, school-based curriculum (KTSP) which is developed by the school consists of some components;
- Objective of educational Institution
- Legal Guidance of KTSP
- Body and content of KTSP
- Academic Calendar
- REVIEW ON CURRICULUM AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT
According to Hass (1987:9-10), curriculum is a guidelines to determine learning experience. The learning experience should be based on the objectives which depicted before. The Curriculum should include the objectives of teaching, how the objectives will carry on in the teaching process and how to measure that the objectives have been reached or not. If the objectives could not be reached in which element should be repaired? In other word, the curriculum should have five points; the first is objective, second material, third method of teaching, fourth is evaluating and fifth is remedial.
The students and teacher should know and understand the objectives of what they would learn or the material objectives they would learn. The objective should tell specific targets so the teacher is easy to evaluate and make decision whether the objectives have been reached or not and it can be analyze the weakness of his curriculum.
The goals of curriculum should cover education for citizenship, vocation, self realization, and critical thinking. They are related to the society, individual talents, need, interest, and ability in changing society.
- Element of Curriculum
The elements should provide in the curriculum are:
- Objectives/ goal : the first step of planning to do something is aim or goal. The goal will bring the next step is choosing material.
- Material. The material should be given to students should follow according to the goals
- Method: it means how the teacher bring the material in order to the target reached
- Evaluations; to know the targets have reached it need to evaluate
- Remedial. It means if the target has not reached it should see in which the weakness happened.
The development of curriculum is dynamic. It based on the element of curriculum itself that the curriculum can be changes if the target has not reached, we should do remedial to the curriculum.
- The principle of curriculum development
There are many views in curriculum , here is based on Australian Council Curriculum, the curriculum should covers
- Encompassing view of curriculum
- Explicit acknowledgement of core value
- Integration, breadth, and balance
- A developmental Approach
- Collaboration and partnership
- Outlines five principles of curriculum development
- Curriculum should be grounded in an understanding of the middle school child
- Curriculum should be based on what we want student to know and be able to do
- students and teachers should be engaged in authentic, intellectual work
- assessment should demonstrate that students can do important work
- a coherent curriculum should be developed across entire school.
- DISCUSSION: A School-Based Curriculum Analyses on English KTSP
- The Principles of Curriculum
As states above, curriculum should be grounded in understanding of the middle school child. It means that the students have to know what and where a subject they learn carry on. Thus the students consider that the material they learn would be useful for her future. And, the curriculum should accommodate the students need also.
The English curriculum in Indonesia is far from the principle above. School Based curriculum needs school to participate as a center of curriculum development. Most schools never do analyzing on students needs and socio-potential around the school. There are many reasons a school never try to develop its KTSP such as, it spends a lot of time and money, and the school has misunderstood about KTSP. The local government does not know how to guide schools to develop their own KTSP. Most of all, they just adopt without any reserving the syllabus given by Pusat Kurrikulum.
- Material Development
According to English Syllabus the material should covers in four skills; speaking, listening, reading and writing. They are;
- Functional texts
- Transactional and Interpersonal expression
English KTSP also is known as Genre Based Curriculum, the KTSP cover more than 7 types of text. They should be taught integrated with functional text and expressions. There are many problems in teaching English material based on Genre based given by Government:
Genre based Curriculum is adopted from Australia where English is a first language. The Genre based Curriculum needs students to analyze the content of various texts and it runs well in teaching English as a first language as well as Bahasa Indonesia for Indonesian as first language.
So many material should be taught integrated in 68-72 hour of session. The teacher should work hard to teach the material in which are not related easily. Lets we see and analyze the syllabus content below:
SYLLABUS CONTENT ANALYSIS
|Transactional & Interpersonal||Functional Text||Genre (Text Type)|
It is clear that the achievement of English teaching learning is the students are able to communicate in English both oral and written. The English school based curriculum has analyzed that there are many problem in teaching English based on the curriculum. The writer worried about curriculum achievement which government stated in English syllabus and Ministry Regulation will far to reach.
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION
- The government should consider to the background and the need of the English learners.
- It is better to compare the English curriculum of the countries in which is English as foreign language as in Indonesia, rather than adopt the English curriculum from countries which are English as first or second language.
- The government should not put the English learning achievement higher than students and school needs. It is better to see Japanese who still communicate in their own language but they used to write in English better.
- Each school should conduct a thorough need analysis before adopting the most appropriate curriculum.
- Each school should add, modify, and leave out competencies to suit their own context to make a more realistic alignment of curricular objectives and students’ needs.
- Each school should decide to set advanced competencies in their English curriculum, the very first step to take is to improve the quality of their English teachers themselves
- Pusat Kurikulum , Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan , Naskah Akademik KTSP, Departeen Pendidikan Nasional , 2007
- Agus Dharma, PhD ” Indonesia Basic Education Curriculum Current Content And Reform “ a paper, 2008
- Hartoyo, M.A, Ph.D., Curriculum and Material Development, Syllabus/Course Outline, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. DR. Hamka, 2009